Muskoka District sits mainly in climate zone E, with its western fringe occupying zone D, and its most Eastern end brushing zone F. In the period of May-October 2014, Muskoka experienced 267.6mm of precipitation, 1097 growing degree days, and 1,670 crop heat units.
Muskoka is made up largely of Humo-ferric Podzol soils. It sits in plant hardiness zone 4a.
Muskoka has diversified animal agriculture, though cattle farming is one of the most common livestock farm types. 5,700 acres were used as pasture in 2011, with a total of 1,217 cattle and calves. Hay is the most common major field crop.