Thunder Bay

Thunder Bay

Climate Conditions

The West of Thunder Bay sits in climate zone G, the center in H, and the East in I.

In the May-October period of 2014, Thunder Bay district had 1010-1261 growing degree days, 1575-2010 crop heat units, and 343-513mm precipitation. The mean annual growing season is 170 days.


Thunder Bay District lies in plant hardiness zone 4b. Humo-ferric Podzols predominate in the Eastern part of the district, and more Dystric Brunisols in the West. Eutric Brunisol and Organic soils occur farther in the North. Bedrock is often close to the surface, and exposed rock is common in some areas. Deeper Luvisolic soils occur around the city of Thunder Bay and in a strip on either side of Highway 17 to the East.


Thunder Bay District is more agriculturally diverse than other areas of the North, with cattle farms composing a smaller number of the total than in any other district. 3,901 hectares are in use as pasture, with a total of 6,713 cattle in 2011. Like other districts, hay is the most common major field crop, though many other crops are grown.

Notable Centres

Thunder Bay

With a 2011 population of 108,359, Thunder Bay is the largest community on Lake Superior and the second most populous in Canada’s North after Greater Sudbury. The commercial, administrative, and medical centre of the region, medical research and education have begun to replace forestry and manufacturing as the focuses of Thunder Bay’s economy.

Thunder Bay is home to an International Airport. By car, Thunder Bay is 16 hours from London, 15 hours from Toronto, and 16 hours from Ottawa.


The townships of Beardmore, Nakina, Geraldton, and Longlac were amalgamated to create Greenstone in 2001.

Temperatures in Greenstone range from a mean of -18.6 in January and 17.2 in July. There are 101 frost-free days, with the average last spring frost occurring on June 4 and the first fall frost occurring on September 14. The area receives on average 556.1mm rain annually, falling over 95.8 days, with a peak mean monthly rainfall of 108.6mm in September.

Greenstone is 15 hours 20 minutes from London, 14 hours from Toronto, and 15 hours 44 minutes from Kingston.